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BEFORE TREATY: Adam Archibald’s Business Plan in 1870

BEFORE TREATY: Adam Archibald’s Business Plan in 1870

HISTORY – DID YOU KNOW: On May 20, 1870, a week after assent to the Manitoba Act — but before it was confirmed by the Imperial Government — Adams G. Archibald was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba and the North West Territories. The Lieutenant Governor, Adams G. Archibald, arrived at Fort Garry on September 2,

HISTORY – DID YOU KNOW:

On May 20, 1870, a week after assent to the Manitoba Act — but before it was confirmed by the Imperial Government — Adams G. Archibald was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba and the North West Territories. The Lieutenant Governor, Adams G. Archibald, arrived at Fort Garry on September 2, was sworn in immediately, and publicly assumed the government of the Province of Manitoba on September 6, 1870. He thus completed the process of transferring Red River from the government of the Hudson’s Bay Company as a colony to the government of Canada as a Province of the Dominion. The first problem was “The Cart Before The Horse.” The Province of Manitoba asserted land beyond the boundaries of the ‘Lord Selkirk Agreement of 1817’ and no Treaty for consent was made with the Ojibway and the Cree Nations. In fact, The Portage Band posted on a church door:

Notice – Dec 17th 1870

To all whom it may concern.
  
Where as the Indian title to all lands west of the Fifty mile boundary line at High Bluff has not been extinquished & Whereas those lands are being taken up & the wood thereon cut off by parties who have no right or title thereto.

I hereby warn all such parties that they are infringing on lands that as yet virutally belong to the Indians & do hereby call on them to desist, on pains of forfeiting [their] labour.

Moosnos his x mark

Witness Fred A Bird

The Lieutenant Governor, Adams G. Archibald must set things legally right and must make a Treaty. He was also mindful of the Queen’s directive on Treaty making. This is based on the 1763 Proclamation by King George III.

In Making Treaties, Queen Victoria had said: “I mandate that Treaties will be negotiated…

  1. In my name and under my supervision;
  2. for the sole purpose of immigration and settlement;
  3. compensation must be paid;
  4. the treaties will be just and equitable.

The 1867 Address referenced in the 1870 Order, which provides, among other things, that “…the said North-Western Territory shall be admitted into and become part of the Dominion of Canada upon the terms and conditions set forth in the first herein-before recited [1867] Address…”

That means by law, the North-Western Territory is not admitted into and does not become part of the Dominion of Canada until the Terms and Conditions have been satisfied, namely, that a Treaty has been consented to by the Nations of their lands and territory and just and equitable compensation have been agreed to.

Archibald had researched Pre-Confederation and United States Treaties with Indigenous Nations and developed a business plan in 1870.

160 acres proposed to Immigrants and Indians family of five. In Treaty 4 and the rest of the Treaties it is 640 acres for the Indians.  

Based on 1841 price in the U.S.A. Sale of property is set at a minimum of $1.25 per acre.

In the 149 years which have passed, the honour of the Crown has become badly tarnished. In the years following Treaty, the self-governing First Nations would become wards of Canada subject to the control of Indian Agents and the Indian Act. When the lands were opened to settlement, exploitation Indigenous resources began without permission or compensation. The Treaty promise of prime lands for farming was not fulfilled. First Nations people were denied access to their resources on unsettled lands. Present day interpretation of the Treaties continues to be defined by the courts and more recently, at Treaty tables established between Canada (Crown) and First Nations such as the First Nations Treaty 2 Territory. 

White Spotted Horse, Lodge Keeper

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